3c.1. On average, how many candidates are eligible for clinical practice each semester or year? What percent, on average, complete clinical practice successfully?
On average, 91 candidates are eligible for clinical practice each year. One-hundred percent of candidates complete culminating clinical experiences. The Beginning and End Term Enrollment provides details on clinical practice eligibility and completion from academic 2006-2007 through 2008-2009.
3c.2. What are the roles of candidates, university supervisors, and school-based faculty in assessing candidate performance and reviewing results during clinical practice?
The table, Role Expectations in the Assessment of Candidate Performance in Clinical Practice outlines the roles and expectations of candidates, university supervisors, and school-based faculty during practica, student teaching, and internships. Additional information regarding role parameters and expectations are also found in Affiliation Agreements, Field Manual, and Graduate Handbook.
The student teaching (clinical practice) roles of baccalaureate student teachers center on meeting requirements prescribed in the Candidate Field Assessment Process (CFAP), with its lesson planning, lesson delivery, and analysis of student learning. Candidates are also expected to attend special-topic seminars and Effective Collaboration and Use of Community Resources SPED 405, and present their Proficient e-Portfolio. In the Proficient e-Portfolio, candidates compose their Portfolio Essays in which they reflect on their professional development and their impact on P-12 student learning.
The student teaching (clinical practice) roles of baccalaureate supervisors focus on mentoring candidates through CFAP requirements, including conferencing before and after the formal observation. The university supervisor conferences with student teachers and the school-based supervisor (cooperating teacher) throughout the student teaching placement, with special attention lent to reviewing mid-term and final evaluations with student teachers and cooperating teachers. The university supervisor is also the liaison between P-12 schools and the Department of Education during student teaching experiences, ensuring that both student teachers and cooperating teachers fulfill their respective role requirements.
The student teaching (clinical practice) roles of baccalaureate cooperating teachers (school-based) faculty are to provide on-going mentoring to student teachers, culminating in student teachers assuming the full range of teaching responsibilities. Mentoring includes guidance in planning, preparing, delivering, and assessing lessons. Also, cooperating teachers assist student teachers in managing classroom routines and student behaviors, collaborating with colleagues, and working with parents and caregivers. Cooperating teachers are expected to communicate with university supervisors on a regular basis, conduct both mid-term and final evaluations of student teachers’ performance (Student Teaching Evaluations), and review evaluations with student teachers and university supervisors. Also, cooperating teachers evaluate student teachers’ dispositions using the department’s Assessment of Professional Dispositions instrument.
The student teaching roles of post-baccalaureate student teachers mirror those of their baccalaureate peers, especially regarding CFAP requirements. Additionally, post-baccalaureate, student teachers are expected to log weekly field activities and evaluate themselves in conjunction with evaluations provided by their cooperating teachers and university supervisors.
The student teaching roles of post-baccalaureate university supervisors are similar to those of their baccalaureate peers in regard to monitoring student teachers CFAP requirements. Supervisors also monitor the quality of student teachers’ weekly field activity logs and either conduct weekly seminars or maintain weekly contact with seminar instructors.
The student teaching roles of post-baccalaureate cooperating teachers mimic those of baccalaureate level cooperating teachers, they verify candidates’ activity logs and conduct weekly formal feedback sessions with candidates.
Candidates’ roles in the School Counseling Program field components include: completion of weekly School Counselor Logs with reflection, attend weekly supervision classes with university supervisors, completion of the signature assignment, Counseling Session Critiques, and completion of the P-12 Student Outcome Activity assignment. These candidates confer with site supervisors at mid-term and end of term to review field evaluation instruments and complete Candidate Site Evaluations at the conclusion of the practicum/internship.
University supervisors’ roles include the following: holding weekly supervision classes for field candidates, reviewing weekly logs with reflections, conducting a minimum of two site visits per semester. Finally, the university supervisor with the candidate and site supervisor review mid-term and final field evaluations plus the Assessment of Professional Dispositions instruments with candidates and site supervisors.
Site supervisors’ roles include the following: conducting weekly supervision sessions with candidates, sharing Practicum and Internship Evaluation ratings with candidates and university supervisors at the mid-term and end, completing Assessment of Professional Disposition instruments to review with candidates and university supervisors, and completing Field Placement Activities Form by the end of field experiences.
3c.3. How is time for reflection and feedback from peers and clinical faculty incorporated into field experiences and clinical practice?
Through assignments and assessments of field performance, candidates on the initial level are provided time for reflections on lessons taught and the level of student learning through the Candidate Field Assessment Process (CFAP). This comprehensive assessment process is employed in EDUC 201, EDUC 301 and in Student Teaching, EDUC 480/483. The university supervisor provides feedback to candidates through this process, which includes pre-observation conference, formal observation, and the post-observation conference. There are multiple opportunities for peer interaction and feedback in initial and advanced classes. During student teaching, candidates share reflections with both clinical faculty and peers during scheduled seminars. Also, in the co-requisite of student teaching, Effective Collaboration and Use of Community Resources (SPED 405), candidates process lessons learned during the student teaching experience.
Self reflection is required throughout student teaching and clinical practice in the portfolio essay, Blackboard discussions, and the Candidate Field Assessment Process. Peer feedback is obtained through Blackboard, student teaching seminar, and Effective Communication and Use of Community Resources (SPED 405). Clinical faculty feedback is ensured with the completion of the university supervisor and cooperating teacher responsibilities with regard to field assessments and with the portfolio process.
The post-baccalaureate Exceptional Needs Programs, both initial and advanced licensure levels, provide time for both reflection and feedback through implementation of the CFAP pre- and post-observation conference. Additionally, candidates engage in weekly seminars and field reflection journals reviewed by university supervisors. Weekly seminars also provide a medium for self-reflection and peer feedback. Cooperating teachers in clinical practice are contractually required to conference with candidates 15 hours over the course of the field experience.
School counseling candidates complete activity logs, reflections, and participate in weekly one-on-one half hour group supervision meetings during clinical practice. At these meetings candidates receive peer and clinical faculty feedback and reflect on their progress as related to expected clinical practice competencies. Site supervisors in clinical practice are contractually required to conference with candidates 15 hours over the course of the field experience.
3c.4. What data from multiple assessments provide evidence that candidates demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and professional dispositions for helping all students learn in field experiences and clinical practice?
Evidence that candidates demonstrate knowledge and skills for helping all students learn is obtained through the Candidate Field Assessment Process (CFAP). Additionally, Mild Disabilities/Interventions (SPED 237) and Methods for Teaching Exceptional Middle and High School Youth (SPED 328) include field-based case study signature assignments that measure candidates’ knowledge and skills in addressing student learning needs. The results from assessments of candidates’ impact on student learning are documented in Standard 1.d. (initial baccalaureate, initial baccalaureate – non-reviewed programs). The Assessment of Professional Dispositions (1g2 initial baccalaureate, 1g2 initial baccalaureate – non-reviewed programs, 1g3 initial baccalaureate, 1g3 initial baccalaureate – non-reviewed programs) instrument provides data on candidates’ attitudes and related behaviors that demonstrate willingness to help students learn.
In post-baccalaureate Exceptional Needs Programs, CFAP’s multiple assessments serve as field-based measurements of candidates’ proficiencies in favorably impacting student learning. Also, criteria specific to student learning are integrated into the Assessment of Professional Dispositions (1g2 initial and advanced post-baccalaureate, 1g3 initial and advanced post-baccalaureate). The results from assessments of candidates’ impact on student learning are documented in 11 signature assignments whose data are noted in Standard 1 (initial post-baccalaureate, advanced post-baccalaureate).
In the School Counseling Program, data from specific items in the final evaluations, the Assessment of Professional Dispositions (1g2 advanced post-baccalaureate, 1g3 advanced post-baccalaureate), Counseling Session Critique rubrics and P-12 Student Outcome Activities combine to demonstrate candidates’ knowledge, skills, and professional dispositions for helping all students learn.
3c.5. What process is used to ensure that candidates collect and analyze data on student learning, reflect on those data and improve student learning during clinical practice?
The Candidate Field Assessment Process (CFAP) begins with pre-planning of the Formal Lesson Plan, through the use of Lesson Planning Guides. Candidates collect and analyze demographic and student performance data to ensure accurate planning of the formal lesson. After formal lessons are implemented, candidates analyze the post-lesson assessment results of student learning, complete the Post-Observation Lesson Narrative (POLAN), which includes a graphic depiction of student assessment results and samples of student pre and post assessments. Finally, candidates and university supervisors meet for post-observation conferences during which they review the formal lesson’s implementation and explore ways to refine lessons so as to yield improved student learning results. More specifically, the POLAN requires the candidate to collect and analyze from a range of performance levels and to reflect on lesson revision or expansion.
At the post-baccalaureate exceptional needs advanced level, the Candidate Field Assessment Process (CFAP) is operationalized to include instructional and assessment differentiation, use of evidence-based practices, and skills utilizing action research techniques. Advanced level candidates are expected to incorporate elements of research-based instructional design for effective teaching.
In the School Counseling Program, the project-based process, P-12 Student Outcome Activity, requires candidates to implement intentional counseling activities that are data-driven and that can be evaluated to advance student development. P-12 Student Outcome Activity is modeled on the Indiana Mentoring and Assessment Program for School Counselors (IMAP-SC). This model requires candidates to plan an activity, develop an assessment approach, implement the activity, collect and analyze results, reflect on the process and outcomes, and propose ways to improve the activity and consequent student learning.
3c.6. How does the unit ensure that all candidates have field experiences or clinical practice that includes students with exceptionalities and students from diverse ethnic/racial, linguistic, gender and socioeconomic groups?
The unit ensures that candidates are prepared to work with all students, including those with exceptionalities and those from diverse ethnic/racial, linguistic, gender and socioeconomic backgrounds through program design and monitoring of candidate placements. The design of the baccalaureate initial licensing program prepares candidates to serve general education P-12 students as well as those with exceptional needs. EDUC 140, 201, and 301, respectively, all of which include diverse field placements and are co-taught with a general and special education prepared professor. Visual art candidates, by virtue of their K-12 program, do not receive academic preparation to license in exceptional needs. The K-12 Visual Art Program, however, is augmented by two required courses in exceptional needs.
The Director of Field Experiences monitors candidate experiences and makes appropriate placement assignments to ensure that candidates have field and clinical practice preparation working with students from diverse backgrounds. The Field Placement Demographics document verifies candidates’ field and clinical placements, which include structured experiences interacting with diverse student populations. Placements include work with students with exceptionalities and students from diverse ethnic/racial, linguistic, gender, and socioeconomic groups. Placements are tracked through the Candidate Tracking System (CTS). The CTS documents placement diversity by P-12 students’ race and ethnicity, socio-economic status, academic performance, and gender. Also, the CTS tracks placements which include geographic distinctions, such as urban, suburban and private / parochial school settings.
As noted in the Field Placement Demographics document, candidates in the post-baccalaureate Exceptional Needs Program complete clinical practices in settings contingent on their employment status (e.g., currently employed in schools) and licensing status (initial license, emergency license, etc.). It is mandatory that candidates complete field requirements in schools appropriate to their licensure area, interacting with students from diverse racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic backgrounds. Candidates may complete Practicum, SPED 513 placements on-campus in the summer academic improvement program Oaks and Willows. This program offers scholarships to families meeting free and reduced lunch criteria. Moreover, candidates may complete Practicum, SPED 513 in a local social service agency, such as the Turnstone Center for Children and Adults with Disabilities.
In the School Counseling Program candidates are required to work with students at all grade levels, K-12. Diverse school practicum and clinical experiences are arranged by the Director of School Counseling, and tracked by the Director of Field Experiences.